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BK virus-associated hemorrhagıc cystitis in patients wıth allogeneıc hematopoıetıc cell transplantation: report of three cases

Duygu Mert, Hikmetullah Batgi, Alparslan Merdin, Sabahat Çeken, Mehmet Sinan Dal, Emre Tekgündüz, Fevzi Altuntaş, Mustafa Ertek
  • Duygu Mert
    Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Clinic, Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey | drduygumert@hotmail.com
  • Hikmetullah Batgi
    Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Clinic, Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
  • Alparslan Merdin
    Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Clinic, Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
  • Sabahat Çeken
    Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Clinic, Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
  • Mehmet Sinan Dal
    Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Clinic, Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
  • Emre Tekgündüz
    Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Clinic, Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
  • Fevzi Altuntaş
    Hematology and Stem Cell Transplantation Clinic, Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
  • Mustafa Ertek
    Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Clinic, Dr. Abdurrahman Yurtaslan Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

Abstract

BK virus is a human polyoma virus. It is acquired in early childhood and remains life-long latent in the genitourinary system. BK virus replication is more common in receiving immunosuppressive therapy receiving patients and transplant patients. BK virus could cause hemorrhagic cystitis in patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hemorrhagic cystitis could cause morbidity and long stay in the hospital. Diagnosis is more frequently determined by the presence of BK virus DNA detected with quantitative or real-time PCR testing in serum or plasma and less often in urine. The reduction of immunosuppression is effective in the treatment of BK virus infection. There are also several agents with anti-BK virus activity. Cidofovir is an active agent against a variety of DNA viruses including poliomyoma viruses and it is a cytosine nucleotide analogue. Intravenous immunoglobulin IgG (IVIG) also includes antibodies against BK and JC (John Cunningham) viruses. Hereby, we report three cases of hemorrhagic cystitis. Hemorrhagic cystitis developed in all these three cases of allogeneic stem cell transplantation due to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). BK virus were detected as the cause of hemorrhagic cystitis in these patients. Irrigation of the bladder was performed. Then levofloxacin 1×750 mg intravenous and IVIG 0.5 gr/kg were started. But the hematuria did not decreased. In the first case, treatment with leflunomide was started, but patient died due to refractory AML and severe graft-versus-host disease after 4th day of leflunamide and levofloxacin treatments. Cidofovir treatment and the reduction of immunosuppressive treatment decreased the BK virus load and resulted symptomatic improvement in the second case. Initiation of cidofovir was planned in the third case. Administration of cidofovir together with the reduction of immunosuppression in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with BK virus in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients could be a good option.

Keywords

BK virus; hemorrhagic cystitis; leukemia

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Submitted: 2017-04-28 21:06:28
Published: 2017-06-26 13:18:43
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Copyright (c) 2017 Duygu Mert, Hikmetullah Batgi, Alparslan Merdin, Sabahat Çeken, Mehmet Sinan Dal, Emre Tekgündüz, Fevzi Altuntaş, Mustafa Ertek

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