Guidelines for Authors
Manuscript will be carefully scrutinized for evidence of plagiarism, duplication and data manipulation; in particular, images will be carefully examined for any indication of intentional improper modification.
Any suspected misconduct ends up with a quick rejection and is then reported to the US Office of Research Integrity.
Ensure that your work is written in correct English before submission. Professional copyediting can help authors improve the presentation of their work and increase its chances of being taken on by a publisher. In case you feel that your manuscript would benefit from a professional a professional English language copyediting checking language grammar and style, you can find a reliable revision service at:
The Corresponding Author must submit the manuscript online-only through our Manuscript Submission System.
Authors are kindly invited to suggest potential reviewers (names, affilitations and email addresses) for their manuscript, if they wish.
First and second pages
The first page must contain:
- title (lowercase), without acronyms;
- first name and family name of each author, separated by commas;
- affiliation(s) of each author (in English);
- full name and full postal address of the corresponding author. Phone, fax number and e-mail address for the correspondence should also be included;
- three to five key words.
The second page should contain:
- authors' contributions, e.g., information about the contributions of each person named as having participated in the study (http://www.icmje.org/#author);
- disclosures about potential conflict of interests;
- further information (e.g., funding, conference presentation ...).
- Original Articles are reports of data from original research, in which the conclusions represent a major advance and should normally be divided into an abstract, introduction, design and methods, results, discussion and references. The abstract should contain about 250 words and must be structured as follows: background, design and methods, results, conclusions. A maximum of 20 authors is permitted, and additional authors should be listed in an ad hoc appendix.
- Review Articles are comprehensive discussions of topics to provide an update in a particular field. Mini-reviews are more focused discussion limited to no more than 20 references.
- Editorials are mini-review, viewpoint or perspectives articles written by our Editorial Board.
- Short Communications must provide conclusive findings: preliminary observations or incomplete findings cannot be considered for publication. They should be signed by no more than 10 authors.
- Brief reports should have a short abstract of no more than 150 words, a text of about 2000 words, a maximum of 3 tables and/or figures (total), and up to 20 references.
- Letters to the Editor, news and commentaries are short letters related to a contemporary issue (a recent finding published in other journals), comments or discussions related to articles published in Drugs and Therapy Studies in the last 1-3 month. Novel types of articles dealing with any aspects of drugs and therapies are also accepted for revision including but not limited to:
- A) Single Institution Experience Reports: this is a novel type of articles that journals sometimes publish. We are aware that due to circumstances, sometimes single institutions treat patients following criteria not firmly established in the field or with drugs that there is no enough clinical evidence. For instance, during the last H1N1 outbreak patients were treated quite different from country to country. These types of papers are important since they help to communicate experience with a particular drug or treatment until there are firm basis for a standardized protocol.
- B) Educational articles: the aim of these articles is to decrease the gap between basic research and clinical practice. For instance, while it was relatively firmly established that H. Pylori was important for the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer and effective treatments were available during the 80s' it took almost 10 years for physicians to start treating patients targeting H. Pylori. Professors and lecturers not directly involved in research but in teaching can submit articles relevant for specific field.
- C) Methods to evaluate drug effects, e.g. animal models, software, will be also considered.
- D) Emerging treatment modalities using novel technology and novel drugs (e.g. nanopharmaceuticals, aptamers) for potential use for the treatment of human diseases will be encouraged.
- E) Negative results, e.g. well designed clinical trials that fail to demonstrate benefit. Except Editorials, news and commentaries, all other articles are peer-reviewed.
For further details on the specific layout to follow for the different types of papers published by the Journal, please refer to the Section Policies.
References should be prepared strictly according to the Vancouver style. References must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text (not alphabetical order), and they must be identified in the text by Arabic numerals in superscript. References in the main text must always be cited after dots and commas. References to personal communications and unpublished data should be incorporated in the text and not placed under the numbered references [Example: (Wright 2011, unpublished data) or (Wright 2011, personal communication)]. Where available, URLs for the references should be provided directly within the MS-Word document. References in the References section must be prepared as follows:
- more than three authors, cite 3 authors, et al. If the paper has only 4 authors, cite all authors;
- title style: sentence case; please use a capital letter only for the first word of the title;
- journal titles mentioned in the References list should be abbreviated according to the following websites:
- ISI Journal Abbreviations Index (http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations);
- Biological Journals and Abbreviations (http://home.ncifcrf.gov/research/bja);
- Medline List of Journal Titles (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pubmed/J_Medline.txt);
- put year after the journal name;
- never put month and day in the last part of the references;
- cite only the volume (not the issue in brackets);
- pages have to be abbreviated, e.g., 351-8.
To ensure the correct citation format, please check your references in the PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed).
Standard journal article
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 2002;347:284-7.
Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, eds. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming, 2002 Apr 3-5, Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. pp 182-91.
Article with organization as author
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension 2002;40:679-86.
Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2002.
Bjørn Lomborg, ed. RethinkHIV - Smarter ways to invest in ending HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2012.
Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, eds. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2002. pp 93-113.
All manuscripts submitted to our journal are critically assessed by external and/or in-house experts in accordance with the principles of peer review (http://www.icmje.org/#peer), which is fundamental to the scientific publication process and the dissemination of sound science. Each paper is first assigned by the Editors to an appropriate Associate Editor who has knowledge of the field discussed in the manuscript. The first step of manuscript selection takes place entirely in-house and has two major objectives: i) to establish the article appropriateness for our journals readership; ii) to define the manuscript priority ranking relative to other manuscripts under consideration, since the number of papers that the journal receives is much greater than it can publish. If a manuscript does not receive a sufficiently high priority score to warrant publication, the editors will proceed to a quick rejection. The remaining articles are reviewed by at least two different external referees (second step or classical peer review). Manuscripts should be prepared according to the Uniform Requirements established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (http://www.icmje.org/#prepare).
Authorship and Contributorship
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship according to the ICMJE criteria. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should only be based on substantial contributions to: i) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data, and to ii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on iii) final approval of the version to be published; and iv) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Authors should provide a brief description of their individual contributions. Those who do not meet all four criteria should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading. Authors can find detailed information on the Publisher's web site.
Obligation to Register Clinical Trials
The ICMJE believes that it is important to foster a comprehensive, publicly available database of clinical trials. The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, etc. Our journals require, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. The journal considers a trial for publication only if it has been registered before the enrollment of the first patient. The journal does not advocate one particular registry, but requires authors to register their trial in a registry that meets several criteria. The registry must be accessible to the public at no charge. It must be open to all prospective registrants and managed by a non-profit organization. There must be a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data, and the registry should be electronically searchable. An acceptable registry must include a minimum of data elements (http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/clinical-trials-registration/). For example, ClinicalTrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine, meets these requirements.
Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research
When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. An Informed Consent statement is always required from patients involved in any experiments. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Further guidance on animal research ethics is available from the World Medical Association (2016 revision). When reporting experiments on ecosystems involving non-native species, Authors are bound to ensure compliance with the institutional and national guide for the preservation of native biodiversity.