Validation of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire into Greek

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Eirini Oikonomidou *
Constantinos Mihas
Foteini Anastasiou
Christos Lionis
(*) Corresponding Author:
Eirini Oikonomidou |


Primary care physicians face challenges in diagnosing and managing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) meets the standards of validity, reliability, and practicability. This paper reports on the validation of the Greek translation of the RDQ. RDQ is a condition specific instrument. For the validation of the questionnaire, the internal consistency of its items was established using the alpha coefficient of Chronbach. The reproducibility (test-retest reliability) was measured by kappa correlation coefficient and the criterion of validity was calculated against the diagnosis of another questionnaire already translated and validated into Greek (IDGP) using kappa correlation coefficient. A factor analysis was also performed. Greek RDQ showed a high overall internal consistency (alpha value: 0.91) for individual comparison. All 8 items regarding heartburn and regurgitation, GERD, had good reproducibility (Cohen’s κ 0.60-0.79), while the remaining 4 items about dyspepsia had a moderate reproducibility (Cohen’s κ=’ 0.40-0.59) The kappa coefficient for criterion validity for GERD was rather poor (0.20, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.36) and the overall agreement between the results of the RDQ questionnaire and those based on the IDGP questionnaire was 70.5%. Factor analysis indicated 3 factors with Eigenvalue over 1.0, and responsible for 76.91% of variance. Regurgitation items correlated more strongly with the third component but pain behind sternum and upper stomach pain correlated with the second component. The Greek version of RDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument following the pattern of the original questionnaire, and could be used in primary care research in Greece.

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