Multiparameter flow cytometry to detect hematogones and to assess B-lymphocyte clonality in bone marrow samples from patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas

  • Giovanni Carulli | giovannicarulli@alice.it Division of Hematology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Santa Chiara Hospital, University of Pisa, Italy.
  • Virginia Ottaviano Division of Hematology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Santa Chiara Hospital, University of Pisa, Italy.
  • Valentina Guerri Division of Hematology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Santa Chiara Hospital, University of Pisa, Italy.
  • Stefano Giuntini Division of Hematology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Santa Chiara Hospital, University of Pisa, Italy.
  • Paola Sammuri Division of Hematology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Santa Chiara Hospital, University of Pisa, Italy.
  • Eugenio M. Ciancia Second Division of Pathology, Pisa University Hospital, Italy.
  • Antonio Azzarà Division of Hematology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Santa Chiara Hospital, University of Pisa, Italy.

Abstract

Hematogones are precursors of B-lymphocytes detected in small numbers in the bone marrow. Flow cytometry is the most useful tool to identify hematogones and, so far, 4-color methods have been published. In addition, flow cytometry is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of lymphomas. We developed a flow cytometric 7-color method to enumerate hematogones and to assess B-lymphocyte clonality for routine purposes. We evaluated 171 cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, either at diagnosis or in the course of follow-up. By our diagnostic method, which was carried out by the combination K/l/CD20/CD19/CD10/CD45/CD5, we were able to detect hematogones in 97.6% of samples and to distinguish normal B-lymphocytes, neoplastic lymphocytes and hematogones in a single step. The percentage of hematogones showed a significant inverse correlation with the degree of neoplastic infiltration and, when bone marrow samples not involved by disease were taken into consideration, resulted higher in patients during follow-up than in patients evaluated at diagnosis.

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Published
2014-06-26
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Original Articles
Keywords:
B-lymphocytes, bone marrow, hematogones, multiparameter flow cytometry, non-Hodgkin lymphomas
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How to Cite
Carulli, G., Ottaviano, V., Guerri, V., Giuntini, S., Sammuri, P., Ciancia, E. M., & Azzarà, A. (2014). Multiparameter flow cytometry to detect hematogones and to assess B-lymphocyte clonality in bone marrow samples from patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Hematology Reports, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/hr.2014.5381