Acquired factor VII deficiency causing severe bleeding disorder secondary to AL amyloidosis of the liver

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Anthony L. Nguyen
Muhammad Kamal
Ravi Raghavan
Gayathri Nagaraj *
(*) Corresponding Author:
Gayathri Nagaraj | GNagaraj@llu.edu

Abstract

A 52 year-old male presented with neck pain after undergoing thyroidectomy for a goiter three weeks prior which was complicated by a neck hematoma requiring evacuation. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a neck hematoma requiring evacuation and he received desmopressin with cessation of bleeding. Coagulation studies were normal. He returned eighteen months later with severe oral mucosal bleeding after a dental procedure and required transfusions with red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in addition to desmopressin, Humate-P, aminocaproic acid, and surgical packing. A comprehensive bleeding diathesis workup was normal. He was readmitted six months later due to abdominal pain and distention and found to have massive hepatosplenomegaly on CT. A new coagulopathy workup revealed prolonged INR to 1.5, corrected prothrombin time mixing study, and a low factor VII level (29%), suggesting acquired factor VII deficiency. A transjugular liver biopsy revealed extensive involvement by ALamyloidosis- Kappa type. He then developed a large right retroperitoneal hematoma which required multiple transfusions with FFP, cryoprecipitate, aminocaproic acid, and vitamin K with slight success. Hemorrhage was subsequently stabilized with recombinant factor VIIa administered every four hours which corresponded with correction of factor VII levels and PT and eventual cessation hemorrhage. Acquired factor VII deficiency causing severe coagulopathy was attributed to hepatic amyloidosis ALkappa subtype. We started treatment with bortezomib, dexamethasone, and cyclophosphamide, however, the patient succumbed to uncontrolled hemorrhage. Acquired factor VII deficiency is extremely rare and to our knowledge, this is the only known case of factor VII deficiency secondary to amyloidosis involving the liver.

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