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Concurrent presentation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with other hematologic diseases in the absence of previous chemotherapy or ionizing radiotherapy treatment is very rare. We present a case of simultaneous occurrence of APL with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A 43-yearold female presented with 3 month of history fatigue, night sweats, chills and pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy demonstrated 20% myeloid blasts with dysplastic changes admixed with abnormal promyelocytes. Cytogenetic analysis showed tetraploidy and deletion in chromosomes 5q and 7q and polymerase chain reaction showed presence of PML/RARA mRNA transcripts, confirming the presence of concurrent APL and MDS-related AML. Induction chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin was initiated along with all-trans retinoic acid. This is the first case to be reported in the literature of concurrent occurrence of APL with MDS-related AML. Treatment with 7 + 3 regimen and ATRA was successful in inducing complete remission.
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