Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease: A concise review

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Palma Manduzio *
(*) Corresponding Author:
Palma Manduzio | ina.m77@alice.it

Abstract

Transfusion-associated graft-versushost disease (TA-GVHD) represents a rare fatal event observed in immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent individuals. The main clinical features of this transfusion reaction are pancitopenia and multiorgan failure (skin, liver, gut). The possible pathogenesis includes donor T lymphocyte proliferation in blood, their engraftment and host tissue attack. The purpose of this narrative review was analyzing the international guidelines for irradiation of cellular blood components to prevent TA-GVHD. A literature search was conducted using PubMed articles published between January 2000 to July 2018. American, Australian, British and Japanese transfusion guidelines have been compared regarding clinical indications. The contribution of manuscripts has been focused on recipients of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, severe cellular immunodeficient patients, fetuses and neonates, immunocompentent individuals. Furthermore, 348 cases of TA-GVHD in the last five decades have been documented according to a recent systematic review. The standard of care to prevent this complication is gamma or x irradiation of cellular blood products. New treatments with pathogen inactivation appear safe and effective against proliferating white blood cells and T cells. Further clinical and biological studies are necessary to better characterize immunocompetence of T cells and select alternative preventive strategies.


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