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Even though the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services is penalizing hospitals for readmissions, and postoperative prophylaxis has demonstrated reduced complications associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), few studies have examined patient compliance with (DVT) prophylaxis at home. A survey querying DVT prophylaxis management and adherence was administered to patients who were within the one to three-month postoperative period after a total knee or total hip replacement. A total of 103 patients completed the survey. A considerable number of patients (17.0%) were non-adherent to DVT prophylaxis. Patients had a lower understanding of the side effects of their DVT prophylaxis, with 30% responding that they had a poor to simple understanding. There is a high rate of non-compliance and there is a poor understanding of complications related to venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. As the population undergoing arthroplasties grows, this study demonstrates the importance of investigating the role of medication adherence in the rate of postoperative DVT.