The effect of tetrastarch solution for capillary leak syndrome following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A report of 2 cases
Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) is a severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) characterized by weight gain, generalized edema, hypotension, and hypoalbuminemia. The primary pathogenesis is injury of the capillary endothelium resulting in a loss of intravascular fluid into the interstitial space. Treatment is limited to vascular endothelial growth factor withdrawal and systemic corticosteroids. We report two cases with CLS where weight gain, ascites, and hypotension developed after neutrophil engraftment following allogeneic HSCT. We obtained serial electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and albumin from these patients. Ultrasound with Doppler tracing performed on both patients showed no reversal of portal venous flow. Issues addressed were the restoration of regular hydration by hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions, together with systemic corticosteroids and forced diuresis. Tetrastarch was administered 10 and 20 days, respectively. Both patients recovered without sequelae. CLS is a frequent complication after allogeneic HSCT. The effects of HES on CLS merit further consideration and prospective study.
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