How I treat relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma

  • Hans C. Lee | The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma, United States.
  • Claudio Cerchione Hematology Unit, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola (FC), Italy.


The expanding therapeutic landscape of relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) has contributed to significant improvements in patient outcomes. These have included combinations of proteasome inhibitors (PIs), immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), histone deacetylase inhibitors, and/or alkylating agents. More recently, the approval of the first-in-class nuclear export inhibitor selinexor and the first-in-class B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) belantamab mafodotin has helped address the current unmet need in patients refractory to PI, IMiD, and anti-CD38 mAb directed therapy, otherwise known as triple class refractory myeloma. With the growing number of treatment options in the RRMM therapeutic landscape, the choice and sequencing of drugs and combinations has become increasingly complex. In this review we discuss our approach and considerations in the treatment of both early and late RRRM based on best available data and our clinical experience.



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Multiple myeloma; Relapsed; Refractory
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How to Cite
Lee, H. C., & Cerchione, C. (2020). How I treat relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. Hematology Reports, 12(s1).