Leprosy transmission in endemic and non-endemic areas based on the profile of antibody response of PGL-1 and PCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from nasal swab among healthy children of East Java, Indonesia
Background: East Java has become one of the provinces that have higher prevalence of leprosy, especially in the coastal region. Environment has also influenced for leprosy transmission and early detection could reduce the incidence rate of new leprosy cases. Epidemiological studies of leprosy in children can give an illustration of the important aspects of the environment. Presence of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) DNA in nasal swabs and seropositivity level among them can describe M. leprae exposure in that area.
Objective: Analyzing PCR from nasal swab and seropositivity level among elementary school children between northern coast and southern coast of East Java province.
Methods: Five hundred and thirty children in Pacitan and Lamongan were involved. Both areas are representation of northern and southern coastal region in East Java Province. After clinical examination, nasal swab and blood samples were obtained. ELISA test was performed to measure the titer of IgM anti Phenolic Glicolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody then continued by PCR to detect M. leprae DNA. Results: From 301 students in Pacitan, 25 students (8.3%) are sero-positives and 9 students (2.9%) are PCR positives. from 229 students in Lamongan, 110 (48,3%) students are sero-positives and 49 students (21.4%) are PCR positives. Both are analyzed by Chi-Square, and from the PCR and ELISA, it concluded that there are statistically significant differences between the two regions.
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