Infectious Disease Reports <p><strong>Infectious Disease Reports</strong> is an online-only, international, open access peer-reviewed journal that publishes scientific papers about infectious diseases. Manuscripts dealing with research, biology, epidemiology, clinical aspects of all infection-related diseases are welcome.&nbsp;<strong>Infectious Disease Reports</strong> publishes original articles, reviews, brief reports and case reports.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Infectious Disease Reports 2036-7430 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Changes in the incidence and epidemiology of neonatal group B Streptococcal disease over the last two decades in Crete, Greece <p>Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal disease. However, GBS rates and prevention strategies vary considerably worldwide. Herein, we investigated the burden and epidemiological trends of neonatal GBS infections in our area (Greece) over the last two decades. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study that includes all cases of culture-proven GBS disease in infants &lt;90 days old in the last 22 years. Neonatal GBS incidence was 0.17/1000 live births (95%CI: 0.11-0.21). A significant increase was noted during the second decade (0.23 <em>vs</em> 0.10/1000, P&lt;0.05). Late onset disease (LOD) significantly increased during the second decade (0.08 vs 0.02, P&lt;0.05). Infants in the LOD group had a higher risk of meningitis (RR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71). Long-term neurological sequelae were reported in 42.8% of meningitis cases. The mortality rate was 8%. The incidence of neonatal GBS disease in our area is among the lowest reported, but an increase was noted the last decade mainly due a rise in the LOD. The burden of LOD, the mortality and long-term disability are still substantial, thus effective prevention strategies − including maternal vaccination for neonatal GBS − are needed.</p> Eleni Vergadi Antonia Manoura Emmanouil Chatzakis Emmanouil Karavitakis Sofia Maraki Emmanouil Galanakis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-05 2018-12-05 10 3 10.4081/idr.2018.7744 Aortitis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva: Description of two cases <p><em>Abiotrophia defectiva</em> is a well-known endocarditis pathogen, however it has never been described as a cause of primary aortitis. Here we describe the first published case of thoracic aortitis and an unusual case of aortic graft infection due to <em>A. defectiva</em>, which were both managed conservatively.</p> David Nygren Martin Älverbrandt Torgny Sunnerhagen Erika Fagman Ellen Ostenfeld Magnus Rasmussen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-05 2018-12-05 10 3 10.4081/idr.2018.7746 Aortic valve endocarditis with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: A rare zoonosis <p><em>Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae</em> has an economic impact in animal husbandry by causing infection in swine, sheep and poultry. <em>E. rhusiopathiae</em> is present in the surface mucoid slime on fish, although fishes do not seem to be affected. Humans can get infected, maost often through occupational exposure and may suffer typical erysipeloid infection on exposed skin such as on hands and fingers, or deeper skin infections, and sometimes sepsis and endocarditis, associated with high case-fatality rate. We describe a case of aortic valve endocarditis caused by <em>E. rhusiopathiae</em> in a 59-year-old man who enjoyed fishing in his spare time.</p> Jenny Jónsdóttir Nielsen Bjørn Blomberg Shahin Gaïni Steinar Lundemoen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-06 2018-11-06 10 3 10.4081/idr.2018.7770 A case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis during treatment for acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease <p>Prolonged immunosuppressive therapy is a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We report a case of a 79-yearold man who underwent immunosuppressive therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclosporine for an acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease. Ten days after initiation of immunosuppressive therapy, the patient reported night sweats and purulent sputum, and chest computed tomography scan revealed consolidation. He was diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and required vasopressor support with oxygen therapy. After the administration of voriconazole and the modulation of immunosuppressive therapy, his condition improved. Short-term immunosuppressive therapy can also induce invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.</p> Motoi Ugajin Hisanori Kani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-05 2018-12-05 10 3 10.4081/idr.2018.7785 Transplacental transmission: A rare case of Ebola virus transmission <p>During the mid-transmission period of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Sierra Leone, a 19-year-old pregnant woman, who was a petty trader in a health facility in Freetown, noticing no fetal movement for the past 3 days, reported to a health facility. Medical history and laboratory testing showed no abnormalities except that she was positive for sickle cell. She was not known to any surveillance team of having any epidemiological link to EVD case. She was induced with oral medications as well as IV infusion. EVD test showed that the fetus was positive to EVD with a high threshold value of 21, while the woman was negative for EVD with a threshold value of 42. The woman was positive to EVD IgG but negative to EVD IgM by ELISA technique. This is a rare EVD case in the period of medium transmission. We conclude that the woman may have come into contact with a low dose of virus not enough to cause a full blown EVD and that her immune system was able to stop the virus from further replication.</p> Lawrence Okoror Abdul Kamara Brima Kargbo James Bangura Mat Lebby ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-05 2018-12-05 10 3 10.4081/idr.2018.7725 Mycetoma in Timor-Leste and first report of nocardiosis <p>Mycetoma is a neglected tropical disease with an unknown global burden. Although considered endemic to South-east Asia, it has not previously been reported from Timor-Lest. We describe two cases in Timor-Leste, highlighting the challenges surrounding microbiological diagnosis and management shared by many low to middle-income countries. As characteristically described, both patients lived rurally and presented late with marked soft tissue involvement and multiple draining sinuses following a prolonged period of high morbidity. <em>Nocardia brasiliensis,</em> a beadedbranched, modified acid-fast, gram-positive bacilli, was isolated and confirmed by molecular testing in the first case. The causative organism in the second case could not be confirmed due to limited microbiological capabilities. Due to limited local laboratory capabilities, Nocardia spp. infection cannot be routinely confirmed in Timor- Leste. However, the microbiology laboratory is essential for the successful diagnosis and management of Mycetoma. In both cases, medical therapy alone resulted in cure and favorable outcomes, although supply of antibiotic remains an ongoing resource issue.</p> Nicola Townell Thomas Locke Margaret Gibbons Dan Murphy Joshua Francis Clare Nourse ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-12 2018-12-12 10 3 10.4081/idr.2018.7804