Microbiology Research https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr <p><strong>Microbiology Research</strong> is an international, online-only, open access peer-reviewed journal which publishes original research, review articles, editorials, perspectives, case reports and brief reports to benefit researchers, microbiologists, physicians, veterinarians. <strong>Microbiology Research</strong> publishes ‘Clinic’ and ‘Research’ papers divided into two different skill and proficiency levels: ‘Junior’ and ‘Professional’. The aim of this four quadrant grid is to encourage younger researchers, physicians and veterinarians to submit their results even if their studies encompass just a limited set of observations or rely on basic statistical approach, yet upholding the customary sound approach of every scientific article.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Microbiology Research 2036-7473 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Use of slow sand filtration technique to improve wastewater effluent for crop irrigation https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7269 Water scarcity has resulted to urban residence to resort to using untreated wastewater to irrigate their crops. This practice raises concerns on health of the farmers and consumers of the crops. The study aimed at determining whether the effluent from Boundary Sewage Treatment Plant was up to national and international standards recommended for irrigation, if not they were further subjected to slow sand filtration of different sand sizes (0.1 and 0.05 mm) to polish the effluent. Pour plate method was used to determine total coliforms (TC), Biological oxygen demand (BOD) technique for BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD) digestion for COD, gravimetric method for total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS). One sample t-test during dry season showed that BOD, COD, TC and TSS in the effluent were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than the standards for irrigation. During wet season BOD, COD, TDS and pH were significantly not higher (P&gt;0.05) than the compared standards for the wastewater to be used for crop irrigation. The filters improved the effluent from the treatment plant to the standards for irrigation. The sequential treatment of the raw wastewater by the Boundary Sewage Treatment Plant and the slow sand filtration technique made the wastewater to achieve the standards it can be utilized for crop irrigation. Chebor Joel Lizzy A. Mwamburi Ezekiel K. Kiprop ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7269 Effect of salt tolerant Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth under soil salinity: A comparative study https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7462 This study was conducted to examine the comparative effect on wheat plant health inoculated with the two different rhizobacterial strains <em>Bacillus </em>sp. (JG3) and <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp. (JG7) under soil salinity. Total seven potential salt tolerant strains were isolated from the saline soils of BBAU-Lucknow. The bacterial strains have been investigated for nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, ammonia, indole acetic acid and hydrogen cyanide production activities. Based on morphological and biochemical activities the strains JG3 was designated as <em>Bacillus</em> sp. and the strain JG7 was designated as <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp. Both the strains witness positive for the different plant growth promoting traits. In comparison of strain JG7, strain JG3 inoculated wheat seeds enhance plant height by 32.32%, root length by 37.84%, fresh weight by 28.2% and dry weight by 15.51% in FYM amended soils. We observe in this study that seeds treated with <em>Bacillus</em> sp. found significantly effective in plant growth promotion compared to sp. in saline soil. Based on the comparative experimental study reported herein, it is pointedly observed that the use of salt tolerant PGPRs are effective for facilitating plant health in salt stress environments. Shobhit Raj Vimal Jaya Gupta Jay Shankar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7462 Inactivation of food borne pathogens by lipid fractions of culinary condiments and their nutraceutical properties https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7465 Lipid fraction from four different culinary condiments namely black seed (<em>Nigella sativa</em>), fennel seeds (<em>Foeniculum vulgare</em>), bay leaf (<em>Laurus nobilis</em>) and coriander seeds (<em>Coriandrum sativum</em>) were investigated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid content, total flavonol content and antibacterial attributes. Antimicrobial properties were determined against food-borne bacteria through agar well diffusion, drop agar diffusion, macrobroth dilution with simultaneous determination of their minimum inhibitory concentrations and changes in cellular morphology was analyzed through Scanning electron microscopy. Generally, ethanolic lipid fractions were more effective bioactively as compared to methanolic LFs. Parallel results were obtained for antibacterial activities with the highest antibacterial activities exhibited by ethanolic LFs. The results positively support the use of these lipid fractions in generating new systems to inhibit bacterial growth, extend the shelf life and enhance the safety of the packaged food product. The examined oils can also be used for therapeutic purposes. Ayeza Naeem Tanveer Abbas Tahira Mohsin Ali Abid Hasnain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7465 Isolation of an Escherichia coli mutant susceptible to a quinolone in an anaerobic environment https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7467 Quinolones are bactericidal agents that interfere with the essential prokaryotic enzyme DNA gyrase. While their mechanism of killing appears to be elucidated, one interesting feature is represented by the fact that, under anaerobic conditions, the growth of bacteria is inhibited but their viability is not affected by the first generation of quinolones such as nalidixic acid. More information about the mode of action of these drugs in anaerobiosis might be gained through the availability of strains subjected to enhanced killing in oxygen-deprived media. It has been assumed that when a population of a AB1157(F’<em>lac</em>) strain is exposed to nalidixic acid, plasmid-free cells could be recovered from culture treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of the drug (2 mg/L) in aerobiosis, and, at the same drug level, only from the rare spontaneous susceptible mutant(s) in anaerobiosis. Among plasmid free bacteria found, 1 isolate demonstrated the same MIC value to nalidixic acid in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The mutation was co-transferred with Tn<em>10</em> inserted at 28.5 min of the <em>Escherichia coli</em> genetic map into a wildtype strain. These transductants revealed the same phenotypes of the original mutant: susceptibility to nalidixic acid under anaerobic conditions (assessed by time-kill tests) and elongated cells during the aerobic growth, generation time about 65 min in comparison to 25 min of the control. Time kill experiment under aerobic environment revealed that the transductant was also susceptible to ciprofloxacin but not nalidixic acid in the presence of chloramphenicol (50 mg/L). These results suggest a possible role of bacterial topoisomerase in the anaerobic susceptibility to nalidixic acid of the mutant. Eugenio A. Debbia Anna Marchese ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7467 The effects of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and its supernatant on some bacteriological and sensory values in Rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) fillets https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7431 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) have a great potential as bio-preservatives. The live cells and supernatant <em>Lactococcus</em> <em>lactis</em> subsp. <em>lactis</em> induced bacteriological changes in <em>Onchorhynchus</em> <em>mykiss</em> fillet by spray and immersion methods was studied during vacuum- packaged storage at 4 °C for 15 days. 40 kg of <em>O. mykiss</em> were prepared from a culture farm in Oshnavieh (Northwest Iran) and 112 fillet samples (100g) were prepared by aseptic method. <em>L. lactis</em> subsp. <em>lactis</em> (PTCC1336) bacteria was cultured in MRS culture medium. Its supernatant (2%, 4%) was extracted and 10<sup>6</sup> CFUml<sup>-1</sup> dilutions of LAB were prepared and tested on the fillets to enhance their shelf life. All samples were evaluated regarding to growth of psychrotrophic, psychrophilic, mesophilic bacteria, molds and yeasts. Four characteristics including of odor, flavor, texture and color of fillets after and before cooking were evaluated for sensory analysis on days 1, 5, 10 and 15 and compared with control samples. The 4% supernatant and live bacteria were more effective than that of 2% and control (P&lt;0.05). The amounts of corrosive bacteria in 4% and live cells in storage time were less than human consumption limits (7log CFUg<sup>-1</sup>), whereas in control and 2% supernatant treatments were more than that limits. The results showed that increasing the percentage of supernatant was more effective on bacteriologic factors and enhanced sensory characteristics of rainbow trout fillets (P&lt;0.05). Asad Abbaspour Anbi Vadood Razavilar Moslem Neyriz Naghadehi Masoud Seidgar Ali Nekuiefard Yoseif Ali Asadpour Osalou ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7431 Construction of prcK and prcR Mutant Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei HD1.7 and the Impact on the Production of Paracin 1.7 https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7475 Gene knockouts of <em>prcK</em>, <em>prcR</em> and both together were constructed in <em>L. paracasei</em> HD1.7. The antimicrobial activities of the <em>prcK</em>, <em>prcR</em> and <em>prcKprcR</em> mutant strains against <em>B. subtilis</em> were 23.6%, 21.9% and 36.6% lower than that of the parental strain, respectively, indicating that these genes affect production of bacteriocin antimicrobial peptides. qRT-PCR assays showed that the relative transcription levels of <em>prcK</em> and <em>prcR</em> mRNA in the DK and DR strains were 0.36 and 0.33 times of that in parental bacteria, respectively. Our data suggest that prcK and prcR are quorum sensing related genes that influence production of the bacteriocin Paracin 1.7. This research provides the basis for exploring the functions of these genes in the production of Paracin 1.7 and more generally for the exploration of the biological preservatives instead of chemical preservatives. Jingping Ge Xiaolei Ji Tian You Yanyang Sun Wenxiang Ping ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7475 Association of integrons with multidrug-resistant isolates among phylogenic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7484 The aims of this study were to investigate the antibiotics susceptibility, multidrug- resistant (MDR) frequency and the association of integrons with MDR among phylogenic groups of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). In total, 176 non-duplicated UPEC isolates were collected from urinary tract infections (UTIs) specimens. The disk diffusion method was performed for determination of antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Phylogenetic grouping and the presence of integron-associated genes (int) were detected by the PCR technique. A high frequency of resistance was observed to cotrimoxazole (96.9%), ampicillin (85%), trimethoprim (80.1%) and cefazolin (79.6%); and 140 isolates (79.5%) were MDR. Carbapenems and fosfomycin were the most effective antibiotics. The majority of isolates (60.8%) belonged to the phylogenic group B2. Integrons were detected in 135 (76.7%) of isolates and, class I was the most common (63.6%) class. MDR isolates were found to be significantly associated with class І integrons. These isolates were found to be closely associated with the phylogenic group D (82%), however, the presence of class І integrons was higher among MDR isolates of the phylogroup B1. This pattern is believed to be due to other mechanisms such as the overexpression of the efflux pumps. Our findings show a significant correlation between MDR and the presence of class І integron. We conclude that class 1 integron plays an important role in the development of MDR UPEC, especially among the phylogroup B1. Mina Yekani Mohammad Yousef Memar Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi Fatemeh Yeganeh Sefidan Naser Alizadeh Reza Ghotaslou ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7484 Study on antibacterial and flavonoid content of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7480 Pomegranate is known for it's many health benefits. These benefits are due to the biological active compounds which are present in the pulp as well as in the peel of the pomegranate. The active compounds from the peel were obtained using cold percolation method using ethanol as solvent. Antibacterial activity of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) was studied on<em> E. coli</em>, <em>E. coli</em> NCIM 2065<em>, Salmonella typhi,</em> <em>Salmonella</em> <em>paratyphi</em> <em>B</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Proteus</em> <em>mirabilis</em>, <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>S. aureus</em> <em>NCIM2079</em>, <em>Shigella</em> <em>flexneri</em>, <em>Lactobacilus</em> <em>casei var</em> <em>shirota</em> by agar well diffusion method. All organisms were sensitive to the extract with inhibitory concentration ranging from 25mg/mL-100mg/mL except Lactobacilus casei var shirota which was resistant to even 100mg/mL concentration of PPE. Flavonoid content of the extract was found to be 10mg quercetin equivalent/g of extract. Renu Narendra Jaisinghani Shweta Makhwana Ankit Kanojia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7480 In vitro bactericidal activities of various extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigmas from Torbat-e Heydarieh, Gonabad and Khorasan, Iran https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7583 Saffron is one of the most highly priced agricultural products in the world. Its prize can reach 20,000 €/kg retail and this is due both to the high demand and to the great cultivation and production costs. Several studies have demonstrated that differences in saffron quality are mainly due to the methodology followed in the processing of stigmas, and environmental conditions independent of the origin. Some authors found phenotypic variations within cultivated saffron, but very limited genetic diversity. The reason for the very limited genetic diversity in cultivated saffron is explained by its asexual mode of reproduction (propagation). The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of stigma saffron, which were tested against different bacteria strains. The results obtained from the antimicrobial activity study indicate that stigmas of C. sativus have some antimicrobial effect. Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga Renzo Torricelli Yousef Hosseinzadeh Gonabad Nicoletta Ferradini Giuseppe Venanzoni Paola Sechi Maria Francesca Iulietto Emidio Albertini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 9 1 10.4081/mr.2018.7583