Guidelines for Authors

Manuscript will be carefully scrutinized for evidence of plagiarism, duplication and data manipulation; in particular, images will be carefully examined for any indication of intentional improper modification.

Any suspected misconduct ends up with a quick rejection and is then reported to the US Office of Research Integrity.

Ensure that your work is written in correct English before submission. Professional copyediting can help authors improve the presentation of their work and increase its chances of being taken on by a publisher. In case you feel that your manuscript would benefit from a professional a professional English language copyediting checking language grammar and style, you can find a reliable revision service at:

The Corresponding Author must submit the manuscript online-only through our Manuscript Submission System.

Authors are kindly invited to suggest potential reviewers (names, affilitations and email addresses) for their manuscript, if they wish.

Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts have to be double-spaced with one-inch margins. Headings must be used to designate the major divisions of the paper. To facilitate the review process, manuscripts should contain page and line numbering. Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscript checked by a language editing service, or by an English mother-tongue colleague prior to submission.

First and second pages

The first page must contain:

  1. title (lowercase), without acronyms;
  2. first name and family name of each author, separated by commas;
  3. affiliation(s) of each author (in English);
  4. acknowledgments;
  5. full name and full postal address of the corresponding author. Phone, fax number and e-mail address for the correspondence should also be included;
  6. three to five key words.

The second page should contain:

  1. authors' contributions, e.g., information about the contributions of each person named as having participated in the study (http://www.icmje.org/#author);
  2. disclosures about potential conflict of interests;
  3. further information (e.g., funding, conference presentation ...).

RESEARCH PAPERS (Clinic - Research)

Professional Research Papers report the results of original research which have not been published elsewhere. If the research has in part been previously reported, such as on a Web site, in a thesis or dissertation, or in another journal, this must be disclosed in the author’s letter of submission. A research paper usually consists of 10-12 double-spaced typewritten pages of text, the reference list, tables and figures. Research papers deal with its subject in some depth.

Junior Research Paper is a short paper that describes observations made in a limited area of investigation. Negative results are sometimes best reported in the form of a research note. However, the research note should not be used as a vehicle for reporting results of inferior research. A research note usually consists of nine or fewer double-spaced typewritten pages of text and appropriate figures and tables. The author must specify that a manuscript is submitted as a research note so it can be properly evaluated during the review process.

REVIEW PAPERS (Clinic - Research)

Review papers are scholarly summaries of the literature that synthesize the current state of knowledge. While review papers covering any aspect of microbiology can be submitted for consideration, those papers that critically evaluate emerging or ‘hot’ topics in which there have been important recent advances are particularly encouraged. Such papers should include a title page, abstract, introduction, main text with appropriate headings and subheadings (paragraph lead-ins), conclusions, acknowledgments (optional) and references. Use of summary tables and figures is also encouraged.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

MR invites Letters to the Editor. Letters commenting on articles printed in this publication are subject to review from the Scientific Editors before acceptance. Letters to the Editor are limited to no more than 5 double-spaced pages. The author of the article that is the focus of the letter is provided the opportunity to respond to the comments. This response is sent back to the author of the letter who is then given the option to continue with the publication process or to withdraw the Letter to the Editor. If withdrawn, neither the Letter to the Editor nor the author’s response will be published. If not withdrawn, both the Letter to the Editor and the author’s response will be published in their entirety.

References

References should be prepared strictly according to the Vancouver style. References must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text (not alphabetical order), and they must be identified in the text by Arabic numerals in superscript. References in the main text must always be cited after dots and commas. References to personal communications and unpublished data should be incorporated in the text and not placed under the numbered references [Example: (Wright 2011, unpublished data) or (Wright 2011, personal communication)]. Where available, URLs for the references should be provided directly within the MS-Word document. References in the References section must be prepared as follows:

  1. more than three authors, cite 3 authors, et al. If the paper has only 4 authors, cite all authors;
  2. title style: sentence case; please use a capital letter only for the first word of the title;
  3. journal titles mentioned in the References list should be abbreviated according to the following websites:
    1. ISI Journal Abbreviations Index (http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations);
    2. Biological Journals and Abbreviations (http://home.ncifcrf.gov/research/bja);
    3. Medline List of Journal Titles (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pubmed/J_Medline.txt);
  4. put year after the journal name;
  5. never put month and day in the last part of the references;
  6. cite only the volume (not the issue in brackets);
  7. pages have to be abbreviated, e.g., 351-8.

To ensure the correct citation format, please check your references in the PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed).

Peer-review policy

All manuscripts submitted to our journal are critically assessed by external and/or in-house experts in accordance with the principles of peer review (http://www.icmje.org/#peer), which is fundamental to the scientific publication process and the dissemination of sound science. Each paper is first assigned by the Editors to an appropriate Associate Editor who has knowledge of the field discussed in the manuscript. The first step of manuscript selection takes place entirely in-house and has two major objectives: i) to establish the article appropriateness for our journals readership; ii) to define the manuscript priority ranking relative to other manuscripts under consideration, since the number of papers that the journal receives is much greater than it can publish. If a manuscript does not receive a sufficiently high priority score to warrant publication, the editors will proceed to a quick rejection. The remaining articles are reviewed by at least two different external referees (second step or classical peer review). Manuscripts should be prepared according to the Uniform Requirements established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (http://www.icmje.org/#prepare).

Authorship and Contributorship
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship according to the ICMJE criteria. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should only be based on substantial contributions to: i) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data, and to ii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on iii) final approval of the version to be published; and iv) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Authors should provide a brief description of their individual contributions. Those who do not meet all four criteria should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading. Authors can find detailed information on the Publisher's web site.

Obligation to Register Clinical Trials 
The ICMJE believes that it is important to foster a comprehensive, publicly available database of clinical trials. The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, etc. Our journals require, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. The journal considers a trial for publication only if it has been registered before the enrollment of the first patient. The journal does not advocate one particular registry, but requires authors to register their trial in a registry that meets several criteria. The registry must be accessible to the public at no charge. It must be open to all prospective registrants and managed by a non-profit organization. There must be a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data, and the registry should be electronically searchable. An acceptable registry must include a minimum of data elements (http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/clinical-trials-registration/). For example, ClinicalTrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine, meets these requirements.

Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research
When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. An Informed Consent statement is always required from patients involved in any experiments. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.  Further guidance on animal research ethics is available from the World Medical Association (2016 revision). When reporting experiments on ecosystems involving non-native species, Authors are bound to ensure compliance with the institutional and national guide for the preservation of native biodiversity.