Transfusion rate, hospital stay and cost-effectiveness of intravenous or local administration of tranexamic acid in total hip and knee arthroplasty: A single-center randomized controlled clinical study

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Georgios Kyriakopoulos
Leon Oikonomou
Andreas Panagopoulos *
Georgios Kotsarinis
Maria Vlachou
Georgios Anastopoulos
Konstantinos Kateros
(*) Corresponding Author:
Andreas Panagopoulos |


We have conducted a prospective randomized study to determine the effect of intravenous or local administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in perioperative transfusion rates, hospital stay and overall hospitalization costs in patients underwent total knee (TKA) or total hip (THA) arthroplasty. During 2015- 2016, 125 THA and 124 TKA consecutive patients were randomly allocated to receive low dose TXA either intravenously (ivTXA groups) or local administration (locTXA groups) or to serve as controls. Power analysis showed that 41 patients in each group were required in order to have an 80% probability of demonstrating a between surgeries difference of more than 35%. Full blood counts obtained on the first and third postoperative day and the maximum hemoglobin difference was documented in all patients. The costs of hospitalization, transfusions and TXA were retrieved by the hospital financial administration. All groups were homogenic in regards to age and preoperative Hgb levels. In both THA and TKA patients, a statistically significant reduction in the maximum hemoglobin difference was found for both the intravenous (ivTXA) and local application (locTXA) groups compared to controls (P<0.001). The average hospitalization was reduced by 2.2 and 2.9 days in THA and TKA patients in respect. The hospitalization costs for the control groups were higher both in THA (286 € more) and TKA (374 € more) patients. We were able to demonstrate that both intravenous and local administration of TXA can significantly reduce transfusion rate, hospital stay and overall cost in TKA or THA patients.

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