Surgical implications of the hip-spine relationship in total hip arthroplasty
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is considered the most successful orthopedic surgical procedure of the last century with excellent survivorship up to 20-years. However, instability remains a major issue representing the most common reason for revision after THA. Hip-spine relationship has gained progressive interest between arthroplasty surgeons and its understanding is crucial in order to identify high-risk patients for postoperative dislocation. Spinal deformity and abnormal spinopelvic mobility have been associated with increased risk for instability, dislocation and revision THA. Preoperative workup begins with standing anteroposterior pelvis x-ray and lateral spinopelvic radiographs in the standing and sitting position. Hip-spine stiffness needs to be addressed before THA in consideration of adapting the preoperative planning to the patient’s characteristics. Acetabular component should be implanted with different anteversion and inclination angles according to the pattern of hip-spine motion in order to reduce the risk of impingement and consequent dislocation. Different algorithmic approaches have been proposed in case of concomitant hip-spine disease and in case of altered sagittal balance and pelvic mobility. The aim of this review is to investigate and clarify the hip-spine relationships and evaluate the impact on modern total hip arthroplasty.
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