Orthopedic Reviews https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or <p><strong>Orthopedic Reviews</strong> is an Open Access, online-only, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles concerned with any aspect of orthopedics, as well as diagnosis and treatment, trauma, surgical procedures, arthroscopy, sports medicine, rehabilitation, pediatric and geriatric orthopedics. All bone-related molecular and cell biology, genetics, pathophysiology and epidemiology papers are also welcome.&nbsp;The journal publishes original articles, brief reports, reviews and case reports of general interest.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Orthopedic Reviews 2035-8237 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Conservative treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome: A systematic review https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7955 <p>Cubital tunnel syndrome (CuTS) is one of the most common compression neuropathies of the upper extremity. Conservative management of cubital tunnel syndrome is often considered first line therapy for mild or moderate symptoms; however, there is little evidence-based literature to guide physicians in this regard. As such, the objective of this study is to complete a comprehensive literature search of the conservative therapies available for treatment of CuTS. Additionally, we hope to assess the evidence for each therapy so that we can make evidence-based recommendations regarding the type and duration of optimal treatment. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were search using a sensitive search strategy. Eligibility for studies included any studies or conference abstracts in which patients were treated conservatively for primary CuTS. Any form of non-operative treatment was acceptable. A data extraction form was developed to collect all information and outcomes of interest, including study design, level of evidence, number of patients, treatment modalities, follow-up time, patient reported outcomes, and electrophysiological markers. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was then completed based on the data extraction form. Given the heterogeneity of the included studies, results were summarized as best evidence available. Our sensitive literature search produced 6484 studies. Initial screening based on title and abstract resulted in the selection of 40 studies that underwent full text review. From these 19 studies were included for analysis in our systematic review. There were 3 level I studies, 4 level II studies, 3 level III studies, and 9 level IV studies. In total this included 844 patients. The most commonly reported outcomes included subjective patient reported outcomes and nerve conduction studies. The most common treatment modalities, from most to least common, included education and activity modification, splinting, steroid/lidocaine injection, nerve mobilization/gliding, pulsed ultrasound, laser therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and physiotherapy. The most common duration of therapy was 3 months with a median follow-up time of 3 months. There was moderate strength evidence to recommend the use of education/activity modification or splinting in mild or moderate CuTS. There is a paucity of literature and high-quality studies regarding the conservative management of CuTS. Regardless, there appears to be a role for non-operative management in CuTS, although further studies are needed to delineate this role further. In the cases of mild or moderate CuTS it is reasonable to trial education/activity modification or splinting as both appear to be equally effective.</p> Sahil Kooner David Cinats Cory Kwong Graeme Drew Matthewson Gurpreet Dhaliwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-12 2019-06-12 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7955 Single versus separate implant fixation for concomitant ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: A systematic review https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7963 <p>Concomitant ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures are uncommon, occurring in 1-9% of femoral shaft fractures. While this injury typically occurs in young patients following high-energy trauma, little consensus has been established regarding the optimal fixation approach. A multitude of treatment strategies exist, with limited evidence as to which is more favorable. The aim of this study was to appraise current evidence, comparing management with either one single or separate devices for both fractures. A systematic review was undertaken in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies published between 1992 and 2018 comparing the rate of postoperative nonunion, malunion, delayed union, avascular necrosis, infection or reoperation between at least one method of single device fixation and one method of separate device fixation were included. Six non-randomized cohort studies assessing 173 patients were suitable for inclusion, each comparing single device cephalomedullary nail fixation of both fractures with a combination of devices. All patients presented following high-energy trauma, at a median age of 32 years. While low complication rate and favorable outcomes were found across both groups, no significant difference could be inferred between either treatment strategy. This injury continues to occur in the traditionally described patient group, and results in acceptable postoperative outcomes. A paucity of randomized studies limits the ability to recommend a single or separate device treatment approach, and as such prospective, randomized trials with adequately powered sample sizes are required to definitively compare surgical management strategies in this rare but complex injury.</p> Kunal Mohan Prasad Ellanti Helen French Niall Hogan Tom McCarthy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7963 Overview of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus mediated bone and joint infections in India https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/8070 <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is the most common pathogen causing bone and joint infections (BJI). In India, prevalence of Methicillin resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) is increasing at an alarming rate and emerged as an important contributor towards the difficult to treat BJI. Currently available anti-MRSA agents have their own limitations with regards to reduced susceptibility as well as safety and tolerability. Furthermore, biofilms over the prosthesis with invariably multi-drug resistant strains leads to complex treatment processes. This necessitates the need to develop and screen new antibiotics against MRSA that can easily penetrate the deep pockets of infection and take care of the challenges discussed. This review aims to discuss on MRSA infection in bone and joint infection, current antibiotic regimen, its associated limitations, and finally, the need to develop new antibiotic therapy for effective management of patients with BJI.</p> Ram Prabhoo Ram Chaddha Rajagopalan Iyer Apurv Mehra Jaishid Ahdal Rishi Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.8070 Proximal junctional failure prevention in adult spinal deformity surgery utilizing interlaminar fixation constructs https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/8068 <p>Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common complication following fusion for Adult Spinal Deformity. PJK and proximal junctional failure (PJF) may lead to pain, neurological injury, reoperation, and increased healthcare costs. Efforts to prevent PJK and PJF have aimed to preserve or reconstruct the posterior spinal tension band and/or modifying instrumentation to allow for more gradual transitions in stiffness at the cranial end of long spinal constructs. We describe placement of an interlaminar fixation construct at the upper instrumented vertebra which may decrease PJK/PJF severity, and is placed with little additional operative time and minimal posterior soft tissue trauma.</p> Alan H. Daniels Shyam A. Patel Daniel B.C. Reid Burke Gao Eren O. Kuris Jacob M. Babu J. Mason Depasse ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.8068 The computed tomography-based anatomy of the ossa cuneiformia https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7876 <p>There is a lack of basic anatomic information regarding the ossa cuneiformia. The aim of the present descriptive study was the detailed evaluation of the anatomy of the ossa cuneiformia. We analyzed 100 computer tomography scans of feet without deformities or previous trauma. The length, height and width of each cuneiforme and their articular surfaces were assessed. We itemized the data to gender differences and to foot length. The medial cuneiforme os had a length of 24.0 mm ± 2.4 (mean ± standard deviation), a width of 17.3 mm ± 2.8 and a height of 28.0 mm ± 3.4. The respective values for the intermediate cuneiforme were 18.2 mm ± 2.1, 15.8 mm ± 2.1 and 22.5 ± 2.2 and for the lateral cuneiforme 26.4 mm ± 2.7, 17.2 mm ± 2.9 and 22.8 mm ± 2.9. We found statistical relevant differences regarding gender and foot length subgroups whereas not for all parameters. The present study illustrates basic anatomic data regarding the ossa cuneiformia. This information might be helpful for implant design and placement during midfoot surgery.</p> Leif Claaßen Elina Venjakob Daiwei Yao Matthias Lerch Christian Plaass Christina Stukenborg-Colsman Sarah Ettinger ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7876 Five-year prospective subsidence analysis of 100 cemented polished straight stems: A concise clinical and radiological follow-up observation https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7984 <p>Early subsidence (&gt;1.5mm) has been shown to be an indicator for later aseptic loosening of cemented hip stems. For the cemented twinSys® stem we published excellent short-term results at 2 years. Midterm data for this stem are available from national registers (NZL, NL), however in all of these sources, clinical and radiological results are missing. Aim of our study was to analyse mid-term survival and radiological changes around the cemented twinSys®stem with special emphasis on subsidence using EBRA-FCA. We conducted a prospective clinical and radiological 5-year follow-up study of 100 consecutive hybrid total hip arthroplasties (THA) using a polished, cemented collarless straight stem (twinSys®, Mathys AG®Bettlach, Switzerland) with a cementless monobloc pressfit cup (RM pressfit®, Mathys AG® Bettlach, Switzerland). Median age at surgery was 79 (69 to 93) years. No patient was lost to follow-up. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Clinical (Harris Hip Score [HHS]) and radiological (cementing quality, alignment, osteolysis, debonding and cortical atrophy) outcomes and an in-depth subsidence analysis using EBRA-FCA were performed. 22 patients died in the course of follow-up unrelated to surgery, 21 stems had an incomplete radiological follow-up. 2 stems were revised, both due to an infection. The survival rate for the stem at 5 years was 98.0% (95% CI 95.3-100%). The survival rate of the stem for revision due to aseptic loosening at 5 years was 100%. The HHS improved from 53 (14-86) points preoperatively to 90 (49-100) points 5 years after surgery. Osteolysis was found in 2 stems without clinical symptoms. In 49 out of 55 patients with a complete radiological follow-up, the EBRA-FCA analysis was possible and showed an average subsidence of 0.66 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.86) mm 5 years after surgery. 10 patients showed a subsidence &gt;1 mm, 5 of which bigger than 1.5 mm. Subsidence was independent from radiological changes and cementing quality. The cemented twinSys® stem showed excellent clinical and radiological mid-term results at five years’ follow-up and seems to be a reliable implant.</p> Kevin Madörin Wolf Siepen Isabella Manzoni Karl Kilian Stoffel Thomas Ilchmann Martin Clauss ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7984 Delay in diagnosis of thoracolumbar fractures https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7774 <p>The time interval between the date of trauma and the diagnosis of vertebral column fractures hinders management and increases liability. We have examined the features and implications of this delay. 585 consecutive thoracolumbar fractures (2005-2016), were considered; 382 (65.30%) were males and 203 (34.70%) females. Mean age was 51 yr. Fall from a height (187; 31.97%), simple fall (147; 25.13%) and road accidents (111; 18.97%) were the most frequent causes of trauma. Physical exertion caused 8.38% (N=49). 142 patients (24.27%) were not diagnosed on the injury day (mean = 3.2 days). Delay was longer in females (mean =5.5 vs. 2.7 days) and shorter in falls from a height (mean = 2.3) or road accidents (2.8). Mean age of diagnosed on the injury day differed from those diagnosed in the first month (49.2 vs60.1). Plain X-ray signs were found in 7 misdiagnosed cases (46.6%). Delay was more frequent in low mineralization cases. Diagnostic delay of spine fractures is frequent. Some risk profiles can help to reduce it. Careful emergency X-ray examination is encouraged, as well as early magnetic resonance imaging in risk profiles.</p> José Aso-Escario Cristina Sebastián Alberto Aso-Vizán José Vicente Martínez-Quiñones Fabián Consolini Ricardo Arregui ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7774 Transfusion rate, hospital stay and cost-effectiveness of intravenous or local administration of tranexamic acid in total hip and knee arthroplasty: A single-center randomized controlled clinical study https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7866 <p>We have conducted a prospective randomized study to determine the effect of intravenous or local administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in perioperative transfusion rates, hospital stay and overall hospitalization costs in patients underwent total knee (TKA) or total hip (THA) arthroplasty. During 2015- 2016, 125 THA and 124 TKA consecutive patients were randomly allocated to receive low dose TXA either intravenously (ivTXA groups) or local administration (locTXA groups) or to serve as controls. Power analysis showed that 41 patients in each group were required in order to have an 80% probability of demonstrating a between surgeries difference of more than 35%. Full blood counts obtained on the first and third postoperative day and the maximum hemoglobin difference was documented in all patients. The costs of hospitalization, transfusions and TXA were retrieved by the hospital financial administration. All groups were homogenic in regards to age and preoperative Hgb levels. In both THA and TKA patients, a statistically significant reduction in the maximum hemoglobin difference was found for both the intravenous (ivTXA) and local application (locTXA) groups compared to controls (P&lt;0.001). The average hospitalization was reduced by 2.2 and 2.9 days in THA and TKA patients in respect. The hospitalization costs for the control groups were higher both in THA (286 € more) and TKA (374 € more) patients. We were able to demonstrate that both intravenous and local administration of TXA can significantly reduce transfusion rate, hospital stay and overall cost in TKA or THA patients.</p> Georgios Kyriakopoulos Leon Oikonomou Andreas Panagopoulos Georgios Kotsarinis Maria Vlachou Georgios Anastopoulos Konstantinos Kateros ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7866 Factors influencing the complication rate in pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7949 <p>The aim of the study was to identify influencing factors on the complication rate in pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures (PSHF). 22 male and 19 female patients with an extension type PSHF underwent conservative and operative treatment at a single trauma department and were reviewed retrospectively. The complications were assessed and the groups of patients with and without complications were compared according to patient- and therapy-related factors. The overall complication rate was 19.5%. Two patients had a primary and 4 patients a postoperative neurological deficit. One patient developed a pin infection after open reduction and crossed pin fixation. One patient underwent early revision surgery because of insufficient initial reduction after closed reduction and crossed pin fixation. All complications appeared in the surgical treatment group. The appearance of complications was significantly associated with a higher Gartland stage. The median time between trauma and operation was significantly longer in patients without compared to patients with complications. PSHF are associated with a high rate of neurological complications. The Gartland stage and the necessity of surgical treatment are the major influencing factors on the complication rate.</p> Daniel Körner Florian Laux Ulrich Stöckle Christoph Gonser ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7949 Insurance status affects access to physical therapy following rotator cuff repair surgery: A comparison of privately insured and Medicaid patients https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7989 <p>Rotator cuff repair (RCR) is an effective procedure to relieve shoulder pain and dysfunction. Postoperative physical therapy (PT) plays an integral role in the overall success of RCR. Insurance status has been shown to be an important predictor of postoperative PT utilization. This study evaluated the effect of insurance status on access to PT services following RCR. One hundred thirty-eight PT clinics were contacted in the Greater Boston metropolitan area. Clinics were contacted on two separate occasions and presented with a fictitious acutely postoperative RCR patient in need of PT. Insurance status was reported as Medicaid or private insurance. Overall, 133 (96.4%) accepted private insurance, whereas only 71 (51.4%) accepted Medicaid (P=0.019). Medicaid patients were offered a first available appointment at a mean of 8.3 days (95% CI: 7.13-9.38, range: 0-31) versus a mean of 6.3 days (95% CI: 5.3-7.22, range: 0-19, P=0.001) for private patients. Clinic location was not associated with access to PT or time to first appointment. Insurance status affects access to PT services and time to first available appointment in patients following RCR surgery in a major metropolitan area.</p> Miranda J. Rogers Ian Penvose Emily J. Curry Joseph W. Galvin Xinning Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-23 2019-05-23 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7989 The grade of preoperative subscapularis muscle atrophy as a prognostic factor for postoperative retears: A double-center retrospective series https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/or/article/view/7909 <p>The aim of the study was to investigate whether subscapularis muscle atrophy is a negative prognostic factor leading to increased risk of retears in patients treated with an arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair. We hypothesized that fatty infiltration of the subscapularis muscle deteriorates the clinical and sonographic outcome of the arthroscopic repair and inhibits reparability of the ruptured tendons. A double- center, multinational, retrospective, blind (in the follow-up) clinical study regarding 32 patients who underwent an arthroscopic subscapularis repair was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups according to the preoparative fatty infiltration grade of subscapularis muscle (group A: grade&lt;II, group B: grade II or higher). Reparability was not influenced by the grade of preoperative fatty infiltration of subscapularis muscle. The preoperative MRI scans showed significantly higher grades of fatty infiltration (group B) in the subscapularis muscle of patients with clinical evidence of retear after the arthroscopic repair. Low grades of preoperative subscapularis muscle atrophy are significantly correlated with low clinical and sonographic retear’s rate after subscapularis arthroscopic repair, while high grades were a clear negative prognostic factor for the clinical outcome of the aforementioned patients.</p> Emmanouil Fandridis Michael-Alexander Malahias Athena Plagou Antonio Orgiani Luca Flaviis Alessandro Castagna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 11 2 10.4081/or.2019.7909