Pediatric Reports 2019-07-23T10:03:06+02:00 Emanuela Fusinato Open Journal Systems <p>The aim of <strong>Pediatric Reports</strong> is to provide to specialists involved in clinical practice, clinical and basic research, a forum for sharing the results of their research.<br>The journal covers all aspects of pediatrics, including subspecialties but also epidemiology and social issues related to public medicine for children and adolescents.</p> Giant melanocytic nevi and soft tissue undergrowth in the left leg: pathogenetic hypothesis 2019-07-23T10:02:52+02:00 Piero Pavone Raffaele Falsaperla Silvia Marino Martino Ruggieri Andrea D. Praticò Beatrice Nardone <p>Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are observed frequently in children. The anomalous skin shows a widely variable clinical expression not only in the anatomic location, but also in color, morphology and superficial structure. According to the width CMN are distinguished in small, medium, large or giant. Aside the cosmetic problem and its psychological implications, CMN may present with severe complications consisting of malignant transformation and/or central nervous system involvement. We report on a 3-month old infant with an extensive CMN in the left leg, which extended from the lower portion of the knee to the foot, with satellite nevi. Concomitant with the extensive nevi in the same district a remarkable reduction in size was present, and involved the adipose and muscle tissues, contributing to a counterpart diameter difference of 5 cm, without bone involvement. Melanocytic nevi and soft tissue undergrowth in the leg is an usual association; a pathogenic explanation on the anomaly involving concomitantly the skin and the underneath soft tissues is advanced.</p> 2019-06-20T09:31:15+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Traumatic perineal injury in a 13-year-old female: Case report and review of the literature 2019-07-23T10:02:55+02:00 Dimitrios Godosis Christos Kaselas Charikleia Demiri Kleanthis Anastasiadis Theodora Tsiaprazi Ioannis Spyridakis <p>Traumatic perineal injury in children is a rather underestimated condition, in terms of occurrence. The rapid stretching of the soft perineal environment, combined with the surrounding osseous tissue of the pelvis, can cause severe injuries. The key to successful management of these injuries includes timely resuscitation, thorough physical examination and quick and safe repair of damages.</p> 2019-06-17T15:59:51+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation presend nodulartransformation presenting witha bdominal hemorrhage: First report in infancy 2019-07-23T10:02:59+02:00 Gloria Pelizzo Vincenzo Villanacci Luisa Lorenzi Orietta Doria Anna Maria Caruso Vincenza Girgenti Elettra Unti Laura Putignano Gabrio Bassotti Valeria Calcaterra <p>A limited number of sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation (SANT) have been reported in pediatric age. We describe the first case of SANT occurring in a nine-week-old female infant that was admitted to our unit for severe abdominal distension and rectal bleeding. Enlarged spleen was detected on physical examination. Laboratory investigations revealed severe anemia and coagulation abnormalities. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography revealed ascites and splenomegaly with a large mass at the lower medial splenic pole. A diagnosis of intraabdominal hemorrhage was presumed and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. A complete transformation of the giant splenomegaly to bossellated masses and multiple bleeding capsular ruptures without subcapsular hematoma were found and an urgent splenectomy was performed. At histology, a SANT was diagnosed (CD34, CD31, CD8 positivity). The postoperative follow up was uneventful. SANT may also occur in infancy with a potentially lifethreatening presentation. Splenectomy may represent the only treatment in severe cases.</p> 2019-05-23T09:03:02+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Special-needs patients in pediatric dentistry: Progeroid syndrome. A case of dental management and oral rehabilitation 2019-07-23T10:03:03+02:00 Maria Grazia Cagetti Nicole Camoni Flavia Cetraro Massimo Scanferla Giacomo Maria Moretti <p>This report presents a case of an eight-year-old girl affected by a progeroid syndrome of unclear genetic origins. The patient’s dental history included oligodontia, premature deciduous exfoliation and roots abnormalities. She was treated with comprehensive oral rehabilitation using dentures. Oral health instructions were given during the whole treatment and follow-up period. The goal of improving the masticatory function and the esthetic was achieved, allowing the patient to increase her social abilities and self-confidence.</p> 2019-05-23T08:57:09+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A randomized controlled trial of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection in Thai children 2019-07-23T10:03:06+02:00 Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol Lakkana Rerksuppaphol <p>Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (ALRI) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. Zinc supplementation has been shown to have a preventive effect against respiratory infections, but little evidence is available on its effect on the treatment of ALRI. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation on the treatment outcome in children that were hospitalized with ALRI. A randomized, doubleblinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 64 hospitalized children with ALRI, who were aged between 2 and 60 months. Children were randomly allocated to receive zinc (30 mg elemental zinc/day) or placebo. The primary outcome was the time to the cessation of ALRI, while the secondary outcomes were the length of the stay in hospital and the individual features of the disease. The study found that ALRI cessation was faster in children who received zinc supplementation (median (IQR): 3 (2-4) days and 4 (3-5) days, respectively; P=0.008), and that their hospital stay was shorter (mean (SD): 3.8 (1.3) days and 6.1 (3.2) days, respectively; P&lt;0.001) than the placebo group. Zinc supplementation was well-tolerated, and no adverse events were reported. In conclusion, zinc supplementation reduced the number of days of ALRI in Thai children, as well as their stay in hospital.</p> 2019-05-23T08:50:11+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##