Pediatric Reports 2019-05-19T09:51:05+02:00 Emanuela Fusinato Open Journal Systems <p>The aim of <strong>Pediatric Reports</strong> is to provide to specialists involved in clinical practice, clinical and basic research, a forum for sharing the results of their research.<br>The journal covers all aspects of pediatrics, including subspecialties but also epidemiology and social issues related to public medicine for children and adolescents.</p> Fulminant early-onset neonatal sepsis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: Case report and review of the literature 2019-05-19T09:50:52+02:00 Carlos Aldana-Valenzuela Andrea Marina Rodriguez-López Erika Guillén-Blancas <p><em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> is a rare cause of neonatal sepsis, and it is associated with significant morbidity and a very high fatality rate. The infection is usually acquired intrapartum, from the colonization of the maternal genital tract. Most affected neonates have an early-onset presentation of symptoms, usually within the first 48 hours after birth, which is similar to other causes of neonatal sepsis such as <em>Streptococcus Agalactiae</em> or <em>Escherichia Coli.</em> However, the virulence seems to be higher for <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em>, which has in addition a higher infant invasion/ maternal colonization ratio than <em>Streptococcus Agalactiae.</em> Pneumococcal vaccination has not resulted in a significant decline of neonatal cases. Many cases included ours, involved serotypes not present in the vaccine. Other strategies to protect these infants are necessary. We describe a late preterm infant with a fatal, early-onset sepsis caused by <em>Streptococcus Pneumoniae</em> serotype 28 A. Maternal vaginal culture grew the same bacteria.</p> 2019-03-27T15:43:39+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pediatric diaphragmatic pacing 2019-05-19T09:50:55+02:00 Tarek R. Hazwani Bedoor Alotaibi Wadha Alqahtani Asma Awadalla Ali Al Shehri <p>Diaphragmatic pacing has been shown to play a significant role in adult patients with diaphragmatic paralysis and facilitates mechanical ventilation weaning. However, reports on its use in paediatric patients are scarce. This report is about a 4-year-old child with a spinal cord injury secondary to a motor vehicle accident that led to quadriplegia and diaphragm paralysis. The patient underwent a diaphragmatic pacing procedure, which helped start gradual weaning from mechanical ventilation. We reviewed the concept of the diaphragmatic pacer and its types depending on the site of the implantation. In addition, we reviewed who can benefit from using a diaphragmatic pacer and compared its use in adults versus paediatric patients. Our case showed that diaphragmatic pacing appears to be effective, as it facilitates mechanical ventilation weaning and improves the quality of life outcome in paediatric patients with diaphragmatic paralysis.</p> 2019-03-11T15:11:39+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Zinc deficiency in children with Dengue viral infection 2019-05-19T09:50:59+02:00 Lakkana Rerksuppaphol Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol <p>Zinc deficiency is highly prevalent in low-income countries, with dramatic consequences to child health, in particular by impairing the immune system resulting in infection. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in Thai children who were admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of the dengue viral infection. Standard cut-off values according to age, sex, time of blood collection, and fasting status were used to define zinc levels. 32 patients were included in the analysis: The mean age was 7.3 years, of whom 56.3% were males. 11 (34.4%) patients were diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever and the remaining had dengue fever. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 46.7%, with boys having a higher risk of zinc deficiency than girls (OR=7.3: 95%CI: 1.5-36.6). Fever duration and length of hospital stay were longer in children with zinc deficiency compared to those who had normal levels, albeit without a significant difference. The results of this study provide the rationale for larger studies that will better elucidate the relationship between zinc levels and the clinical outcomes of dengue disease.</p> 2019-02-26T10:45:55+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Children and adults affected by Cri du Chat syndrome: Care's recommendations 2019-05-19T09:51:02+02:00 Maria Elena Liverani Alice Spano Cesare Danesino Michela Malacarne Simona Cavani Marianna Spunton Andrea Guala <p>Our objective is to collect data and information for a better care and follow up in Cri du Chat patients. We conducted a literature review in August 2017 and then discuss the outcomes within the ABC (Associazione Bambini Cri du Chat, Italian CdC families support group). A proposal for clinical, laboratory and imaging work up should be performed at various ages in CdC patients. Follow up and rehabilitation should continue lifelong as some improvements can be obtained also in older ages and not to lose acquired skills.</p> 2019-02-26T10:31:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Surgical approach to giant ovarian masses in adolescents: technical considerations 2019-05-19T09:51:05+02:00 Giorgio Persano Elisa Severi Noemi Cantone Filippo Incerti Enrico Ciardini Bruno Noccioli Ovarian neoplasms arising from the surface epithelium are rare in the pediatric population; their knowledge is therefore limited and the appropriate management is poorly defined. We describe our experience and suggest our surgical approach to adolescents affected by voluminous ovarian masses. Two 15-year-old adolescents were admitted to our institution in 2017 for multilobulated, fluid-filled masses measuring over 30 cm arising from the ovaries. The cystic component was drained intraoperatively with a spillage-free technique, consisting in the application of a sterile autoadhesive transparent drape on the cyst and the insertion of a 12 Ch pleural drain, secured with a purse-string suture. Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was then carried out. Histology revealed mucinous cystadenoma in both patients. Surgical treatment of ovarian masses should aim at both radically excising the tumor and preserving the fertility of the patients. Decompression with spillage-free techniques can be useful to achieve radical therapy with limited manipulation of tissues. 2018-09-25T12:09:09+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##