Management of obstructive urolithiasis in dairy calves with intact bladder and urethra by Fazili’s minimally invasive tube cystotomy technique

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Mujeeb ur Rehman Fazili *
Hiranya Kumar Bhattacharyya
Bashir Ahmad Buchoo
Hamid Ullah Malik
Shahid Hussain Dar
(*) Corresponding Author:
Mujeeb ur Rehman Fazili |


The present study was planned to evaluate minimally invasive tube cystotomy technique in calves suffering from obstructive urolithiasis having intact urinary bladder and urethra. Fifteen male non-castrated calves with age ranging from 1-10 months (mean 4.05 months), presented for treatment within one to three days (mean 2.2 days) of complete urinary tract obstruction due to urethral calculi with intact bladder and urethra, were included in this study. Under light sedation and local infiltration anaesthesia, all the animals were subjected through left paralumbar fossa, to a minimally invasive surgical tube cystotomy in which catheter was placed in the bladder lumen through a metallic cannula and fixed to the skin with a stay suture (Fazili’s technique). All the animals were discharged the same day. Time taken for the procedure varied from 8 to 17 minutes (mean 11.0 minutes). Normal urination resumed in twelve (80.0%) calves. Mean time taken for normal urination was 10.50 days. In two of the remaining calves, urine flow stopped through the catheter prematurely and they were then subjected to standard surgical tube cystotomy. One more calf did not urinate normally for 30 postoperative days and was lost to the follow up thereafter. Recurrence of the obstruction was not detected in ten and nine animals observed up to six and 12 months respectively. In conclusion, the outcome of this minimally invasive technique is similar to the standard tube cystectomy. Additionally, the procedure is cost effective, quick, simple and field applicable. It also minimizes exposure of abdominal cavity of metabolically compromised animals. However, the technique needs to be tried in larger number of such calves wherein better quality catheter of larger diameter be used before recommending its extensive use.


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