Laparoscopic diagnosis of gross reproductive abnormalities in free-ranging female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

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Vijay Kumar *
Anshu Raj
(*) Corresponding Author:
Vijay Kumar |


A study was conducted between July 2010 to June 2011 in the Monkey Sterilization Centre, Gopalpur, Himachal Pradesh, India to assess the prevalence of reproductive disorders by laparoscopic examination of the genitalia of female rhesus macaques. The animals were captured from different locations in the state using a cage trapping method. A total of 720 female rhesus macaques underwent laparoscopic examination of their reproductive tracts. A total of 63 cases were found to have reproductive abnormalities. Out of these 63 cases, the most common abnormalities reported were ovarian cyst 3.05% (n=22), ovarian tumor 1.66% (n=12), uterine tumor 1.25% (n=9), uterine edema 0.97% (n=7), uterine rupture 0.83% (n=6), ectopic pregnancy 0.69% (n=5), unicornis or acornis 0.28% (n=2). The highest number of cases of uterine abnormalities was recorded in the 12-16 year old age group (33.33%), followed by 8-12 year olds (25.39%), 16-20 year olds (22.22%), then 4-8 year olds (15.87%) and 0-4 year olds (3.17%). Of the 63 animals that showed genital abnormalities, only 52 were found to be pregnant during the breeding season from November to March in the 5-20 year old age group, while 11 animals were not pregnant; a pregnancy rate of 82.53% (52 of 63) of the female rhesus macaques with reproductive abnormalities.


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