Veterinary Science Development <p><strong>Veterinary Science Development</strong> is an Open Access, peer-reviewed journal which covers all the scientific and technological aspects of veterinary sciences, including anatomy, parasitology, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, microbiology, pathology, public health, infectious diseases, oncology, dermatology and alternative veterinary medicine.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Veterinary Science Development 2038-9698 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Estimation of the eeconomic values for the important traits of zel sheep in the intensive production system using a bio-economic model <p>To estimate economic values (EVs) of seven important traits including pregnancy rate (PR), litter size (LS), lamb weight at birth (BW0), three (weaning; BW3), six (BW6) and nine (BW9) months weight and survival rate until the age of 6 months (SR) in Zel sheep under an intensive production system in Mazandaran province of Iran, data from two farms were analysed using a bio-economic model. Variable costs accounted for about 99% of the total costs and the feed costs had the highest proportion with 72.54%. Among the income sources, the sale of surplus animals formed 81.4% of the total revenues. The EVs were estimated as the amount of change in the profit of the system after each trait mean increased by both 1% and one unit, while all other traits were constant at their mean values. The most important trait in this system was LS, followed by SR, PR, BW9, BW3, BW6 and BW0 respectively. The sensitivity of EVs was investigated by changing prices of feed and live weight of 9-month-old lambs by ±20%. Results showed that the EV of BW9 was the most constant and EV of BW0 was the most variable. As the prices of feed and live weight of 9-month-old lambs were simultaneously changed by ±20%, the variation in the EVs decreased and they showed more consistency. This study showed that the profitability in an intensive production system of Zel sheep could be increased by improving LS, SR, PR and BW9.</p> Kian Pahlevan Afshar Mehran Aboozari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-10 2019-01-10 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2018.7854 Isolation, molecular identification and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Campylobacter species of dairy origin: First report from Bangladesh <p>This study was aimed for isolation, identification and characterization of <em>Campylobacter</em> species from Bangladesh Agricultural University dairy farm during the period of January to May, 2016. A total of 80 samples (fecal samples of calves, heifers and cows; milk samples of cows) were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University dairy farm for isolation and identification of <em>Campylobacter</em> species by using cultural, biochemical and molecular methods. Moreover, the isolated <em>Campylobacter</em> species were subjected for antimicrobial susceptibility test. <em>Campylobacter</em> like organisms were presumptively identified in 20 samples. Isolates were biochemically positive to catalase and oxidase tests and in hippurate hydrolysis test some of the isolates (n=6) shown negative that indicated the isolates were <em>C. coli</em> and some of the test isolates (n=14) shown positive that indicated the isolates were <em>C. jejuni</em>. <em>Campylobacter</em> specific 16S rRNA genes were amplified from the isolates.&nbsp;Out of 20 isolated <em>Campylobacter</em> 14&nbsp;(17.5%) were detected as <em>C. jejuni</em> and the rest 6 (7.5%) were detected as <em>C. coli</em> by <em>cdtC</em> gene based multiplex PCR assay. <em>C. jejuni</em> were resistant to amoxicillin, erythromycin,&nbsp;azithromycin and susceptible to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and streptomycin. Furthermore, <em>C. coli</em> were resistant to amoxicillin and erythromycin and susceptible to gentamycin, ciproflaxacin. Out of 20 <em>Campylobacter</em> isolates, 57.14% <em>C. jejuni</em>&nbsp;and 33.33% <em>C. coli</em> were identified as multidrug resistant. To the best of our knowledge, this study has brought the first report on the occurrence of <em>Campylobacter</em> species with their antibiogram profiles in any dairy farm of Bangladesh.</p> S. M. Lutful Kabir Most. Mostary Lubna Mehedul Islam A.K.M. Ziaul Haque Sucharit Basu Neogi Shinji Yamasaki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-10 2019-01-10 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2018.7838 Prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter among layer farms <p><em>Campylobacter jejuni</em> is an important food-borne pathogen. The main source of this pathogen is poultry and poultry products. Poultry farms of low biosecurity level plays major role in disseminating this pathogen. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of <em>Campylobacter</em> and identify potential risk factors associated with their presence in layer farms in Northern Jordan. A total of 2524 samples from chickens, litter, water and feed were collected from 35-layer farms. Samples underwent conventional and enrichment isolation methods for <em>Campylobacter.</em> Confirmation was done morphologically, biochemically and by PCR typing. The flock-level prevalence of<em> C. jejun</em>i was 40%, 37%, 20% in chicken cloacae, drinking water and litter respectively. <em>C. jejuni</em> was the only confirmed isolated species. None of the feed samples revealed presence of <em>Campylobacter.</em> The concentration of free residual chlorine was below the recommended standard levels. The risk factors were identified using modified semi-structured questionnaire. There was no significant association between evaluated risk factors and isolation status potentially reflecting small number of study farms. The prevalence rate for <em>C. jejuni</em> is within commonly reported range. High stocking density, short distance between farms, improper hygienic practice and low water chlorine level seems to increase occurrence rate of <em>Campylobacter</em> in layer farms. Educational biosecurity programs regarding <em>C. jejuni</em> transmission and their public health importance needs to be established.</p> Mohammad Q. Al-Natour Akram R. Al-Aboudi Musa A. Alshehabat MT K. Tamimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2018.6430 Performance of Cobb 500 broiler chicks feed by Chamomile alcoholic extract <p>This study was performed to evaluate the effect of chamomile alcoholic extract on performance, some blood parameters and intestinal characteristics of broiler chicks. A total 320 one day old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 treatments. Treatments were further divided into 4 replicates. Chicks were fed a basal diet as control group, basal diet with 0.3% chamomile extract (S1), basal diet with 0.5% chamomile extracts (S2) and basal diet with 0.7% chamomile extract (S3). The experiment was carried out of 42 days. Feed intake FI and body weight gain BW was calculated for estimation of feed conversion ratio FCR. At the end of experimental period (42 days), to determine carcass traits and other parameters, 2 birds form each replicate were slaughtered. Additionally, the blood serum samples were subjected to biochemical analysis. For determination intestinal characteristics, small intestine tissues were collected. Data from this study showed that improvement of body weight gain and feed conversion were found in chamomile extract groups (P&lt;0.05). There were significant differences between carcasses traits in treatments feed by chamomile extract. As result reveled from this study serum triglyceride, cholesterol LDL decreased in groups fed by chamomile alcoholic extract and HDL increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) instead. In addition, villus height decreased in S1and S2 groups. An increasing crypt depth was seen on S2. According to these data villus widths, epithelium layer and goblet cells increased by using chamomile extract specially by using S2. In conclusion, we could demonstrate that chamomile alcoholic extract may be used as ingredient in broilers ration without harming effects on carcass characteristics, blood biochemical parameters, and intestinal morphology of Ross 308 broiler chicks.</p> Yaser Rahimian Mosa Moeini Saeed Moradi Yasamin Miri Saeed Masoud Davoodi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-08 2018-08-08 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2018.7529 Effect of using ginger, red and black pepper powder as phytobiotics with Protexin® probiotic on performance, carcass characteristics and some blood biochemical on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) <p>This experiment was conducted to evaluate the feeding values of ginger, red and black pepper powder with protexin on performance of Japanese quails. A total 240 ten-days-old male Japanese quails with an average weight of 19±5 g were divided into 8 treatments with 3 replicates as randomized factorial design. The quails were fed by basal diet as control diet, 2% ginger, 2% red pepper 2% black pepper powder with or without protexin probiotic respectively. At the end of trial for carcass evaluation 2 birds form each group were slaughtered. Also, some parameters such as feed intake, body weight gains, and feed conversion ratio were calculated and compared together. Some blood parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein of quail’s blood was determined. In conclusion it seems that inclusion of ginger, red and black pepper powder in quails’ diet at level of 2% may be useful and have significant effects on performance and blood biochemical on Japanese quails.</p> Yaser Rahimian Farshid Kheiri Mehdi Moghaddam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-08 2018-08-08 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2018.7528 Intestinal T-cell lymphoma with eosinophilic infiltration in a cat: a cytohistopathological evaluation with immunophenotyping In the present study, we describe the cytohistopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the intestinal Tcell lymphoma in a seven-year-old male Persian cat, applying the World Health Organization (WHO) system for the classification of domestic animal lymphomas. In fine-needle aspiration, mesenteric lymph nodes contained many lymphocytes from small- to medium-size, a few lymphoblasts and plasma cells, and rare eosinophils suggestive of hyperplastic lymph node. Histopathologically, diffuse infiltration and proliferation of tumor cells in the large intestine mucosa with architectural distortion of the crypts to the tunica muscularis in the submucosa and mucosal ulceration were observed. The tumor cells were composed of small-to-intermediate-sized lymphocytes with round, monomorphic nuclei and scantto- moderate cytoplasm. Eosinophils infiltration was present. The mitotic rate was low. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that neoplastic cells were mostly and strongly positive for T-cell phenotype CD3+ but negative for B-cell phenotypes CD20- and CD79a-. On the basis of cytology, histopathology, and immunohistochemical findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as intestinal T-cell lymphoma, according to WHO histological classification. Applying the WHO classification system for the diagnosis of feline lymphomas is very useful and has high accuracy and consistency. Although cytological examination may assist in the evaluation of gastrointestinal disease, histopathological examination is necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis of alimentary lymphoma. Zahra Nikousefat Mohammad Hashemnia Moosa Javdani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-11 2017-12-11 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2017.6392 Toxicological evaluation of chronic oral administration of Melissa officinalis hydro-ethanol extract in Sprague-Dawley rats <em>Melissa officinalis</em> is a plant that has been widely used as an herbal medicine in many countries. Unfortunately, despite the prevalent medicinal uses of the plant, there are no reports on the possible toxic effects of <em>M. officinalis</em>. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of <em>M. officinalis</em> on some biochemical and hematological parameters and histopathology of organs. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to three equal groups. The animals in groups A and B received 600 and 1200 mg/kg <em>M. officinalis</em> extract, respectively, for 30 days. The rats in group C were given gavaged saline as control. The animals were euthanized at the end of experiment and the blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematology analysis. Additionally, appropriate tissue samples were collected from kidney, liver, spleen, heart and lung for light microscopic examination. <em>M. officinalis</em> caused a significant increase in the alanine aminotransferase level in the treated rats. Although the increase in creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in group A and B, respectively, but there were no significant differences. A significant decrease was observed in the total protein and albumin concentrations in serum of treated rats as compared to the control group. The creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in the group B when compared to the other groups. There were no significant differences in cholesterol, triglyceride and urea concentrations between all groups of rats. The main histopathologic findings in the liver were included hepatocyte degeneration, congestion and dilation of sinusoids, proliferation of bile ducts and infiltration of mononuclear cells around the portal area. Histopathologic examination of the kidneys showed a tubular degeneration and necrosis, tubular and glomerular atrophy and congestion. These lesions were more prominent in the high dose treated rats. The findings suggest that long-term administration of M. officinalis extract even at low doses induces hepatic and renal lesions in rats. Mohammad Hashemnia Farid Rezaei Zahra Nikousefat Maral Bahiraei ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-11 2017-12-11 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2017.6298 Effects of licofelone, a novel 5-LOX inhibitor, in comparison to celecoxib on gastric mucosa of dogs Despite the extensive application of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the use of these drugs is limited due to their adverse effects especially on gastric mucosa. Dual inhibitors that inhibit both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites are considered to have less gastric toxicity in comparison to non-selective and COX-2 selective inhibitors. In this study, fifteen mixed breed dogs were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=5) received placebo, group 2 (n=5) licofelone, an inhibitor of COX- 1, COX-2, and 5-LOX (2.5 mg/kg; twice daily) and group 3 (n=5) celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor (3 mg/kg; twice daily) <em>per os</em> for 14 days. All dogs underwent blinded gastroscopies on days 0, 7, 14 and one week after cessation of treatment and gastric lesions were scored. Examinations to detect fecal occult blood were performed daily. Results showed that licofelone is significantly better tolerated than celecoxib in terms of gastric side effects (P=0.008). Therefore, it seems that licofelone can be an appropriate alternative in dogs when NSAID therapy is necessary. Occult blood was not detected in any dog during the study. Aidin Shojaee Tabrizi Mohammad Azizzadeh Aidin Esfandiari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-11 2017-12-11 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2017.6245 Comparison of clinical signs and bacterial isolates of postpartum endometritis in holstein dairy cows in Iran The aim of this study was to determine the uterine bacteria in cows with endometritis and to compare other characteristics in cases of endometritis without bacterial growth, with Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes) or other bacteria. In total, 86 Holstein cows with postpartum endometritis from 13 commercial dairy herds were sampled once between 21-35 days postpartum. We used several diagnostic techniques for endometritis such as external observation, vaginal exam, rectal palpation, ultrasonography, and cervical and uterine cytological examination. Clear mucus with flakes of pus (E1), mucopurulent discharge (E2), and purulent discharge (E3) are three groups of endometritis. A transcervical double-guarded swab was used for bacterial sampling. The samples were cultured aerobic and anaerobically and biochemical tests were used for differentiation. Measurements were compared between groups: A, no growth (n=47); B, positive bacterial growth without T. pyogenes (n=21); and C, positive bacterial growth with <em>T. pyogenes</em> (n=18). There were no differences (P&gt;0.05) in uterine wall thickness, body condition score (BCS) and milk yield between the groups. The uterine horn diameter was largest in groups A (4.30±0.88) in comparison with groups B (4.81±1.17) and C (5.53±2.17) (P&lt;0.05). The percentage of neutrophiles in smears of the uterine discharge (45.7±33.4) in group C was higher (P&lt;0.05) than in groups A (14.5±22.7) and B (23.5±24.0). Eighty-three percent of group C have shown purulent discharge. In conclusion, the facultative anaerobe <em>T. pyogenes</em> may be the most common bacterial agent of postpartum endometritis in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi Masoud Haghkhah Hamid Reza Gheisari Morteza Yavari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-11 2017-12-11 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2015.6083 Isolation and characterization of a new cell line from spontaneous mouse mammary tumour, MBL-6, for in vivo cancer studies In search for treatments against breast cancer, cell lines are one of the basic resources, particularly as in vitro models. Additionally, animal models of cancer are used as the successive step in therapeutics research. In this regard, human breast cancer cell lines provide fundamental models <em>in vitro</em>. However, <em>in vivo</em> studies require immunodeficient mice, which lack the influence of other <em>in vivo</em> factors such as the native microenvironment and the immune system. There are few standard models to study the pathogenic mechanism at molecular level and cell signaling pathway of breast cancer. In this study, a new mouse breast cancer cell line, MBL-6, was successfully established and characterized from tissues of a spontaneous mammary tumor. The cell line had epithelial morphology, formed adherent monolayer, maintained continuously <em>in vitro</em> and was able to form new tumors when injected subcutaneously in syngeneic mice. The growth pattern and metastasis evaluations revealed a considerable<em> in situ</em> duration before invading distant organs. Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed the expression of ER-, PR- and Her-2 receptors. The chromosome analysis showed numerous chromosomal abnormalities. Aggressive tumorigenecity in tumorigenesis test and the IC50 to cyclophosphamide (CTX), celecoxib (CLX) and cisplatin (CPN) was also evaluated. The numerous tests performed on the new MBL-6 cell line suggest that it is in good quality and may be used in animal models of breast cancer studies. Ladan Langroudi Zuhir M. Hasan Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi Masoud Soleimani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-11 2017-12-11 8 1 10.4081/vsd.2015.6042