Microbiology Research https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr <p><strong>Microbiology Research</strong> is an international, online-only, open access peer-reviewed journal which publishes original research, review articles, editorials, perspectives, case reports and brief reports to benefit researchers, microbiologists, physicians, veterinarians. <strong>Microbiology Research</strong> publishes ‘Clinic’ and ‘Research’ papers divided into two different skill and proficiency levels: ‘Junior’ and ‘Professional’. The aim of this four quadrant grid is to encourage younger researchers, physicians and veterinarians to submit their results even if their studies encompass just a limited set of observations or rely on basic statistical approach, yet upholding the customary sound approach of every scientific article.</p> en-US <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> francesca.baccino@pagepress.org (Francesca Baccino) tiziano.taccini@pagepress.org (Tiziano Taccini) Tue, 29 Jan 2019 14:56:42 +0100 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Microalgae: the next best alternative to fossil fuels after biomass. A review https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7936 <p>It is expected that 84% of the global energy demands will be met through fossil fuels in 2030 due to increasing energy needs. However, due to their impact on the environment through the emission of anthropogenic green house gases, biofuels were introduced as alternative sources of energy. Biofuels of plant origin for the transport sector proved to be controversial due to competition for food production, fertile land and expensive production processes. As a secondary alternative, microalgae such as <em>Scenedesmus obliquus</em>, <em>Chlorella vulgaris</em> and <em>Nannochloropsis</em> sp. were found to be suitable candidates for liquid biofuels production. This review describes the production of transportation liquid biofuels from plant biomass and microalgae. Information is provided on how the controversies related to plant biomass lead to the use of algal biomass. The production processes involved in both generations are discussed and highlighted. Furthermore, details on the production of secondary products such as pigments, feed additives and valuable secondary metabolites are also provided.</p> Ritesh Bhagea, Vishwakalyan Bhoyroo, Daneshwar Puchooa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7936 Mon, 11 Mar 2019 11:23:28 +0100 Evaluation of microbial quality of street food in Karachi City, Pakistan: An epidemiological study https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7463 <p>The purpose of this research was to evaluate the microbial quality of famous street foods vended in Karachi city and find out the potential sources implicated in food contamination. To proceed with this study, dry and wet procedures were used via closed system questionnaire and gold standard techniques respectively. According to the questionnaire survey, majority of people have basic knowledge of food borne sickness i.e. 67% and health risks associated with poor eating habits i.e. 87%, nonetheless most individuals do not mind their cleanliness before eating on spot. A large number of people had come across different food borne infections subsequent to eating street foods. Total mean aerobic count was 7.18±1.26 CFU/ml that was not under the acceptable microbial limits. The highest total viable count 9.15±0.01 CFU/ml and the lowest total viable count 4.67±4.04 CFU/ml recorded were of grilled chicken and fried fish respectively. Poor post handling and personal cleanliness of food venders were ascribed to high bacterial count in completely cooked street foods.</p> Aneela Mehboob, Tanveer Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7463 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 14:39:06 +0100 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase production among K. pneumoniae isolates and its concern on antibiotic susceptibility https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7587 <p>The emergence of <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase</em> (KPC) resistance has led to the countdown of activity of carbapenems, which were considered as drugs of last resort for infections caused by <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em>. The aims of the present study were the detection of KPC-production among <em>K. pneumoniae</em> isolates, select the appropriate method for its detection and assess the consequence of KPC production on the antibiotics susceptibility. One hundred and four non-duplicated <em>K. pneumoniae</em> isolates were collected from University teaching hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. The disk diffusion, E-test, and Modified Hodge test were performed for the determination of antibiotic susceptibility pattern, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) determination and the production of carbapenemase, respectively. <em>Bla<sub>KPC-2</sub></em> gene was detected by using PCR. High levels of resistance were observed towards co-trimoxazole (69.2%), followed by cefazolin (66.3%), ceftriaxone (65.4%), ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (54.8%), gentamicin (50%), and amikacin (39.4%). According to the disk diffusion method, the frequency of imipenem and meropenem resistance was 31.7% and 32.7%, respectively. Colistin was the most effective antibiotic among panels of antibiotics tested. Imipenem MICs range, MIC<sub>50</sub> and MIC<sub>90</sub> were 0.19-32 μg/ml, 4 μg/ml, and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Modified Hodge test was positive in 24 (63.2%) isolate however, <em>bla<sub>KPC-2</sub></em> gene was detected in 8 (21.1%) carbapenem- resistant isolates. Results of the present study revealed a high rate of carbapenem- resistance in K. pneumoniae by phenotypic method, however the presence of one of the molecular, namely <em>bla<sub>KPC-2</sub></em> was not found as predominant cause. Therefore, their reliable detection should be the first priority to combat the infections. Being a simple test, the imipenem disk diffusion could be considered as an appropriate method for the detection of carbapenem-resistant isolates in the routine diagnosis.</p> Azam Shahi, Alka Hasani, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Akbar Hasani, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Mohammad Yosef Memar, Elgar Soltani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/mr/article/view/7587 Tue, 29 Jan 2019 14:56:10 +0100