Refinement of laboratory animal welfare

  • Angelo Gazzano | Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
  • Chiara Mariti Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.


In order to achieve an effective refinement of animal welfare, it is necessary to intervene on all phases of the experimental process: animal housing, experiment, rehoming of animals that have undergone experimentation, with an active intervention by researchers and veterinary surgeons. It is crucial to know the ethology of the hosted animal species, in order to house animals in a physical and social environment that is as similar as possible to the environment in which that species live in natural conditions. A particular care must be devoted to experimental phase in which animal welfare is at greatest risk: a careful control by the veterinarian is necessary to identify the slightest signs of pain in the animal, intervening with an adequate analgesic therapy. At the end of the experimental phase, once the state of good health has been recovered, animals can be rehomed.



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Animal welfare, laboratory animals, refinement, 3R
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How to Cite
Gazzano, A., & Mariti, C. (2020). Refinement of laboratory animal welfare. Biomedical Science and Engineering, 3(s2).